M.Sc. & Ph.D Plant Pathology

The Agronomy programme will offer M. Sc. And PhD degrees in plant pathology. The research project may be selected from any of: Plant mycology, Plant bacteriology, Plant Virology, Seed pathology, Post-harvest pathology, Disease resistance, Biological and biotechnological control.

 

COURSES IN PLANT PATHOLOGY

Course Code Title    Credits
APP 700 M. Sc. Thesis Research 4
APP 800 Ph.D. Thesis Research 6
APP 701 Seminar 2
APP 702 Principles of Plant Pathology 3
APP 703 Molecular Aspects of Plant Pathogenesis 3
APP 704 Phytopathological Techniques 2
APP 705 Biological Transmission of Plant Disease Agents 3
APP 706 Plant Mycology 3
APP 707 Plant Virology 3
APP 708 Plant Bacteriology 3
APP 709 Principles of Seed Pathology 3
APP 710 Diseases Resistance in Plants 2
APP 711 Biological control of Plant Diseases 3
APP 712 Post-harvest Pathology 3
APP 713 Physiology of Host Pathogen Interactions 3
APP 714 Diseases of Plantation and Field Crops 3
APP 715 Diseases of Fruits, Vegetables and Spies 3
APP 716 Pesticide Chemistry, Toxicology and Application 3
APP 717 Soil – plant Disease relationship 3
APP 718 Cultural and Chemical Control of Plant Diseases 3
APP 719 Molecular Plant Virology 3
APP 720 Advanced in plant Bacteriology 2
APP 721 Physiology of Disease Development 2
APP 722 Current Topics of fungi toxicants 2
APP 723 Advances in Seed Pathology 3

Note:   At least one of course APP 706, APP 707, or APP 708 is compulsory for M. Sc. Students. Courses APP 718 to APP 723 are meant for Ph.D. students only.

 

Mandatory Courses:

The following credit hours must be taken by every postgraduate student registered for M. Sc. or Ph.D. degree in plant pathology at the appropriate level.

Course Code Title Credits
ACP 700 M. Sc. Thesis Research 20
ACP 800 Ph.D. Thesis Research 60
ACP 701 Seminar 2-3
AGY 700 Statistical Methods 3
AGY 701 Experimental Design 3

 

In addition to the above, the following core courses should be taken for M. Sc. or Ph.D. in Plant Pathology.

Course Code Title Credits
APP 702 Principles of Plant Pathology 3
APP 704 Phytopathological Techniques 2
APP 705 Biological Transmission of Plant Disease Agents 3
APP 710 Diseases Resistance in Plants 2
APP 711 Biological control of Plant Diseases 3
APP 712 Post-harvest Pathology 3
APP 713 Physiology of Host Pathogen Interactions 3
APP 716 Pesticide Chemistry, Toxicology and Application 3

 

DESCRIPTION OF COURSES

APP 702 Principles of Plant Pathology       (3 Credits)

Importance, definitions and concepts, history and growth of plant pathology, host-parasite interaction, concept of infection, symptomatology, disease development-role of enzyme, toxins, phytoalexins, elicitors, growth regulators etc. inoculums and inoculums potential, survival and dispersal of inoculums, concept of disease epidemics, infection rate, role of environment – physiological specialization, variability, host nutrition, genotypes and hypersensitive reaction. Disease forecasting and assessment of plant disease losses.

Practical: Detail study of representative diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and mycoplasma with emphasis on host parasite interaction, study of different methods of disease measurement and losses.

 

APP 703 Molecular Aspects of Plant Pathogenesis (3 Credits)

Importance and role of biotechnology in plant pathology; concepts and principles, molecular biology of host-pathogen interaction (fungi pathogen, bacteria and viruses); recognition system, R-gene expression; pathogenesis-related protein. Induced resistance. Elicitors; gene cloning and tissue culture in relation to host-pathogen interaction.

Practical: Tissue culture technique, plasmids; extraction characterization and identification.

 

APP 704 Phyto-pathological Technique (3 Credits)

Methods to prove Koch’s postulates with obligate and non-obligate pathogens; pure culture techniques, use of selective media to isolate pathogen, preservation of plant pathogens and disease specimen, pH meter, camera Lucida, microscopic techniques and staining methods; phase contrast system, chromatography, use of advance instrument electron microscope, spectrophotometer and ultra centrifuge.

 

APP 705 Biological Transmission of Plant Disease Agents (3 Credits)

Concepts of biological transmission; biological transmission of viruses by invertebrate vectors – insecta, Arachnida, Nematoda, fungi, dodder; transmission of diseases by seed and grafting techniques, biological transmission of phytopathogenic fungi, phytopathologenic bacteria; importance of biological transmission. The intricate interrelationships between insects, plants, microorganism and the environment are considered in relation to the various roles played by arthropods in the infections, transmission and perpetuation of plant diseases, phytophagous, entomophagous and entomothorous relationships will also be considered.

Practical: Detail study of the mouth parts of insects responsible for virus transmission – compare their suitability for attracting plant juice. Characterization of virus transmission by white flies, aphids, mealyougs and jassids; compare persistent and non-persistent modes of transmission compare NETO virus.

 

APP 706 Plant Mycology – Taxonomy, Biochemistry and Genetics (3 Credits)

Definition of different terms, importance of mycology in agriculture, relation of fungi to human affairs; history of mycology. Modern concepts of nomenclature and classification of fungi, comparative morphology, taxonomy, ultra structure and reproduction of different groups of fungi up to general level. Biochemical processes in fungi-their metabolic pathogens and genetics.

Practical:Detail comparative study of different groups of fungi, collection of culture and live specimens.

 

APP 707 Plant Virology: ( 3 Credits)

History, origin and evolution, composition, synthesis and structure of viruses. Chemical and physical properties, host virus interaction, replication and movements, virus-vector relationship; serology, isolation and purification, multipartite, mechanism of resistance, ecology, classification, control, factors affecting their control, symptomatology and biology of DNA viruses, mycoviruses, mycoplasma viruses, arbo and baculo-viruses, satellite viruses and satellite RNAs, phages, viroids, virusoids, prions. Distribution and economic importance, principles and techniques in electron microscopy.

Practical:Transmission assay of viruses, physical properties, purification, method of raising antisera, serological tests, demonstration of the working of electron microscope and ultratome.

 

APP 708 Plant Bacteriology ( 3 Credits)

Introduction; general characteristics of bacteria, history of phytobacteriology, classification and nomenclature of phytopathogenic bacerisa, bacteriophages, mycoplasma, spiroplasma, general symptoms, survival dissemination and infection process; evolution of pathogenesis and race specificity; phyllophane interactions; concepts and mechanisms and control of blight, soft rots, wilts and crown gall development.

Practical: Methods in phytobacteriology; purification and host inoculation of phytopathogenic bacteria; staining methods; biophysiological, serological and use of anti bacteria chemical/antibiotics.

 

APP 709 Principles of Seed Pathology (3 Credits)

History and economic importance of seed pathology in seed industry and plant quarantine, morphology and anatomy of typical monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous infected seeds. Mode and mechanism of transmission of seed borne microorganisms, determination of rate of transmission of major plant tolerance micro organism in relation to seed certification and tolerance limit. New seed policy, seed act/legislation, role of micro organisms in seed quality determination and germination; control of seed borne plant pathogens and procedure for healthy seed production; seed processing and seed ageing in relating to seed borne diseases and management of seed in storage.

 

APP 710 Disease Resistance in Plant (3 Credits)

Concepts and terminology, variability in plant pathogens, physiologic specialization, escape, tolerance and resistance. Types of resistance, their use and stability; genetics of host parasite interaction and molecular basis of resistance; morphological, histological and biochemical resistance mechanisms, cross protection and immunization.

 

APP 711 Biological Control of Plant Diseases (3 Credits)

Principles of plant disease management, biological balance, types of biological interaction, interactions involved in disease; factors governing biological control; comparative approaches to biological control of plant pathogens; resident and introduced antagonistic; mycorhizal association concepts, operational mechanisms and it relevance in biological control, role of pathogens, host antagonist and physical environment in biological control, biological control of cereal pathogens; large scale production of antagonists, biological control in intergraded plant disease management.

Practical: isolation, characterization and maintenance of antagonists; methods of study of antagonism and antibiosis. Application of antagonists against pathogen in vitro and in vivo.

 

APP 712 Post-Harvest Pathology (3 Credits)

Significance and methods of investigation on post harvest deteriorations; identification of losses at specific situations (field, home, storage). Source and mode of infection; microbial deterioration of fruits and grains and factors responsible for this. Role of myco-toxins in fruit and grain deterioration. Diseases of food crops immediately after harvest and during storage, their identification and significance. Detection and measurement of biological contamination in grains and fruits. Storage structures and systems management of post-harvest decay.

Practical:Study of post-harvest deterioration, isolation and identification of important pathogens. Assessment of losses caused by pathogens (fungi and bacteria, different methods of management of post-harvest losses.

 

 

 

APP 713 Physiology of Host-Pathogen Interactions (3 Credits)

The physiology of diseased plants and the nature of host-parasite interactions. Emphasis placed on the biochemical and physiological change induced in the host by plant pathogens.

Practical: Detailed study of symptoms, of disease and factors responsible for disease spread with reference to specific diseases.

 

APP 714 Diseases of Plantation and Field Crops (3 Credits)

Nature, prevalence and etiology; factors affecting disease development and control measures of important diseases of maize, sorghum, millet, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, tuber crops, cocoa, coffee, sugarcane and rubber.

Practical:Detailed study of symptoms and host parasite relationship of representative disease.

 

APP 715 Diseases of Fruits, Vegetable and Spices (3 Credits)

Nature, prevalence and etiology; factors affecting disease development and control measures of citrus mango, grapes, guava, plantain, banana, papaya; vegetable crops, roots, bulls and leafy crops, crucifers, cucurbits, solanaceous and melvaceous, spices – pepper, onion etc.

Practical:Detail study of the symptoms and host parasite relationship of representative diseases.

 

APP 716 Pesticide Chemistry, Toxicology and Application (3 Credits)

Score of pesticide toxicity, history of development, of pesticides, classification of pesticides, pesticidal formulations and their use; physio-chemical properties of pesticides; susceptibility of pests to the entry of poison, types of pesticidal toxicities and selectivity, persistence, phytotoxicity and bioassay of pesticides, probit analysis, precautions in handling of pesticides, pesticide poisoning, antidotes and their use, production and consumption of pesticides in the state/country.

Practical: Preparation of different pesticidal formulations, working of laboratory spraying, dusting and micro-application apparatus. Calculation of LD 50 values by probit analysis; visit to pesticide manufacturing units in the State/Country.

 

APP 717 Soil – Plant Disease Relationship (3 Credits)

Soil as an environment for plant pathogens; nature and importance of Rhizosphere and Rhisoplane host exudates; soil and root inhabiting fungi; inoculum potential and density in relation to host and soil variables, competition, predation, antibiosis and fungi stasis; suppressive soils, biological control, concepts and potentiality for managing soil borne pathogens.

Practical:Quantification of rhizosphere and rhizoplane microflora with special emphasis on pathogens. Pathogenicity test by soil and root inoculation technique. Correlation between inoculum density of test pathogens and disease incidence. Demonstration of fungi stasis in natural soils. Suppressions of test soil borne pathogens by antagonistic microorganisms.

 

APP 718 Cultural and Chemical Control of Plant Diseases (3 Credits)

Principles of plant disease control, history of fungicides, concepts of pathogens, immobilization; chemical protection and chemotherapy; nature, properties and mode of action of antifungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral chemicals; stickers, spreaders, and adjuvant; foliage, seed and soil application of chemicals; cultural methods of plant disease control and concept of integrated control measures of plant disease.

Practical:In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chemicals against plant pathogens; study of structural details of sprayers and dusters. In vitro efficacy of fungicides preparation and use of fungicides. Efficacy of fungicidal seed treatments under field conditions.

 

 

APP 719         Molecular Plant Virology (Pre-requisite PPA 607) (3 Credits)

Biology of viruses, genetic basis of host specificity, concepts of infection and replication, hybridoma, technology, nucleic acid probe, genetic engineering with plant viruses and their potentials as vectors, genetically engineered resistance; transgenic plants; techniques and applications of tissue culture.

Practical:Latest techniques of detection and identification of viruses; gel electrophoresis, differential and density gradient centrifugation, advanced electron microscopy.

 

APP 720 Advanced in Plant Bacteriology (2 Credits)

Infection process anatomical, biochemical and physiological considerations. Interactions between bacterial plant pathogens and other micro-organisms on host surface during infection; variability, host defense mechanisms, epidemiological relations of bacterial plant pathogens.

 

APP 721Physiology of Disease Development (Pre-requisite PPA 603) (2 Credits)

Processes of parasitism with special reference to leaf spot, wilts, rots and malformation; enzymes, toxins, phyto-alexins, hypersensitivity, disease resistance and susceptibility.

 

APP 722 Current Topics of Fungi toxicants (2 Credits)

Discussions on fungi toxicants, structure-activity relationships and development of newer chemicals, their anti-fungal aspects; mode of action and registration procedures; epidemiology of fungi toxicant usage in the field and their biological interaction with host-pathogen, environment and agro-chemicals in disease control, non-target, hazards and benefits; pathogens resistance to fungi toxicants.

Recent advances in the establishment and subsequent course of disease development in seed and seedling; localization and mechanism of seed transmission in relation to seed infection, forecasting of epidemics through seed-borne infection; seed anatomy in relation to seed infection; production of toxic metabolites affecting seed quality, its impact on human, animal and plant health; pathology of stored seeds; epidemiological factors influencing the transmission of seed-borne diseases.

Practical:Advanced technique in the detection and identification of seed-born fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes; relationship between level of seed-borne infection and expression of disease in field; histopathology of infected seeds; estimation of metabolites from infected seeds.